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(1988 Miller & Drexler) A computational perspective on comparative ecology

A long-standing dream in the field of artificial intelligence has been to use evolutionary processes to produce systems of greater competence than those we can directly design. This paper compares different evolutionary models--such as biological ecosystems, markets, and EURISKO--with respect to this goal. This comparison suggests that a form of ecosystem here termed a direct market (as opposed to the indirect market of human society) is a promising basis for computational ecosystems.

With link to full text:

Miller MS, Drexler KE. (1988) “Comparative Ecology: A Computational Perspective” in The Ecology of Computation, Huberman, B, editor, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.