|Omitted reaction||A chemical reaction that fails by not occurring (see misreaction).|
|Orbital||In the approximation that each electron in a molecule has a distinct, independent wave function, the spatial distribution of an electron wave function corresponds to a molecular orbital. These, in turn, can be approximated as sums of contributions from the orbitals characteristic of the isolated atoms. An electron added to a molecule — or, similarly, one excited to a higher-energy state within a molecule — would occupy a state with a different wave function from the rest; an unoccupied state of this kind corresponds to an unoccupied molecular orbital. Orbital-symmetry effects on reaction rates arise when a reaction requires overlap between two lobes of the orbitals on each of two reagents: if the algebraic signs of the wave functions in the facing lobes do not match, bond formation between those orbitals is prohibited.|
|Overlap||Orbitals lack sharply defined surfaces, declining in amplitude exponentially in their surface regions. When two orbitals are brought together, regions of substantial amplitude overlap. The resulting system can be described as two new orbitals, one formed by joining the two original orbitals without introducing a node in the wave function, and the other formed with a node between them. The nodeless joining reduces the energy of the electrons relative to the separate orbitals, resulting in a bonding interaction; joining with a node raises the energy, producing an antibonding interaction. If both new orbitals are occupied, antibonding forces dominate, resulting in overlap repulsion. Molecular mechanics models give an approximate description of overlap (and other) forces for a certain range of atoms and geometries.|
|Overlap repulsion||A repulsive force resulting from the nonbonding overlap of two atoms.|
Copyright © 1998 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.